The three-fifths compromise resolved this impasse. Instead of counting all sworn persons, only three-fifths should be counted for tax and representational purposes. Sworn persons were thus counted until 1868. At that time, the three-fifths provision had been repealed by the passage of the Thirteenth Constitutional Amendment abolishing slavery and the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which had provided for the census of the entire population of a state for the purpose of representation. Trade and slave trade Think of colonies, states, or groups of people who sought independence. Choose one of these examples or choose your own example: there have been deep differences over how to count enslaved people in terms of representation and taxation. Nearly a third of the people who lived in the South were enslaved African Americans. Delegates from these countries wanted sworn persons to be counted in the same way as free persons, in order to give the South greater representation in Congress. At the same time, the southern states did not want people in slavery to be counted for tax purposes at all.
As few enslaved people lived in the North, the northern states took the opposite position. They wanted people in slavery to be counted for tax purposes, but not for representation. Finally, a special committee found a compromise. This plan, described as a compromise on Connecticut or a great compromise, was adopted after a long debate. The compromise proposed that the legislature be two chambers or have two chambers – a House of Representatives with the number of deputies based on the population of each state and a Senate composed of two members from each state. Large states would have an advantage in the House of Representatives, where representation would be based on population. Congress would be able to collect taxes and all tax laws and expenditures would come from the House of Representatives. Small states would be protected in the Senate, with deputies represented on an equal footing, and state legislators would elect senators. After the creation of the new government, George Washington was elected president and John Adams vice president. Voters also voted senators and deputies. On March 4, 1789, Congress met for the first time at Federal Hall in New York, the temporary capital.
For the promises made during the battle for ratification, James Madison introduced a number of changes during the first session. .